The Java EE 6 Tutorial, The: Advanced Topics, 4/e: 2 (Java Series)
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A compound statement groups many statements into one — and compound statements can also contain other compound statements. Every variable in a Java application has scope , or localized namespace, where you can access it by name within the code. Outside that space the variable is out of scope , and you get a compile error if you try to access it. Scope levels in the Java language are defined by where a variable is declared, as shown in Listing 7.
Listing 7. Within SomeClass , someClassVariable is accessible by all instance that is, nonstatic methods. Scope has many rules, but Listing 7 shows the most common ones. Take a few minutes to familiarize yourself with them. The else statement works the same way as if , in that the program executes only the next statement that it encounters. In this case, two statements are grouped into a compound statement notice the curly braces , which the program then executes. You can also use else to perform an additional if check:. If conditional conditional does not evaluate to true , then conditional2 conditional2 is evaluated.
If conditional2 conditional2 is true, then Block 2 Block 2 is executed, and the program jumps to the next statement after the final curly brace. If conditional2 conditional2 is not true, then the program moves on to conditional3 conditional3 , and so on. Only if all three conditionals fail is Block 4 Block 4 executed. Compound statements are not allowed for either statement.
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Ternary operators are most often used to initialize a variable such as a return value , like so:. In this section, learn about constructs used to iterate over code or execute it more than once. A loop is a programming construct that executes repeatedly while a specific condition or set of conditions is met. For instance, you might ask a program to read all records until the end of a data file, or to process each element of an array in turn.
The basic loop construct in the Java language is the for statement. You can use a for statement to iterate over a range of values to determine how many times to execute a loop. The abstract syntax for a for loop is:.
At the beginning of the loop, the initialization statement is executed multiple initialization statements can be separated by commas. Provided that loopWhileTrue loopWhileTrue a Java conditional expression that must evaluate to either true or false is true, the loop executes. For example, if you wanted the code in the main method in Listing 8 to execute three times, you can use a for loop.
Listing 8. The local variable aa is initialized to zero at the beginning of Listing 8. This statement executes only once, when the loop is initialized. The loop then continues three times, and each time aa is incremented by one. For now, just note the use of the for loop syntax in Listing 8. As you might suspect, if condition evaluates to true , the loop executes. At the top of each iteration that is, before any statements execute , the condition is evaluated.
If the condition evaluates to true , the loop executes. Look again at the for loop in Listing 8. For comparison, Listing 9 uses a while loop to obtain the same result. Listing 9. As you can see, a while loop requires a bit more housekeeping than a for loop. You must initialize the aa variable and also remember to increment it at the bottom of the loop.
If you want a loop that always executes once and then checks its conditional expression, you can use a do Listing At times, you need to bail out of — or terminate — a loop before the conditional expression evaluates to false. For the times when you want to bail, the Java language provides the break statement, shown in Listing In the simplistic example in Listing 11 , you want to execute the loop only once and then bail. You can also skip a single iteration of a loop but continue executing the loop.
For that purpose, you need the continue statement, shown in Listing In Listing 12, you skip the second iteration of a loop but continue to the third. You can skip that record and move on to the next one.
Most real-world applications deal with collections of things like files, variables, records from files, or database result sets. The Java language has a sophisticated Collections Framework that you can use to create and manage collections of objects of various types. This section introduces you to the most commonly used collection classes and gets you started with using them. Most programming languages include the concept of an array to hold a collection of things, and the Java language is no exception. An array is basically a collection of elements of the same type.
The Java EE 6 Tutorial: Basic Concepts
You can create an integer array of elements in two ways. This statement creates an array that has space for five elements but is empty:. This statement creates the array and initializes it all at once:. The initial values go between the curly braces and are separated by commas. The preceding code declares an integer array of five elements. If you try to put more than five elements in the array, the Java runtime will throw an exception.
To load the array, you loop through the integers from 1 through the length of the array which you get by calling. In this case, you stop when you hit 5. Think of an array as a series of buckets, and into each bucket goes an element of a certain type.
Access to each bucket is gained via an element index :. To access an element, you need the reference to the array its name and the index that contains the element that you want. Every array has a length attribute, which has public visibility, that you can use to find out how many elements can fit in the array. To access this attribute, use the array reference, a dot. Arrays in the Java language are zero-based. That is, for any array, the first element in the array is always at arrayName  arrayName , and the last is at arrayName [ arrayName.
Creating an array of java. Each JDK class provides methods to parse and convert from its internal representation to a corresponding primitive type. For example, this code converts the decimal value to an Integer :. Similarly, to convert the Integer representation back to its int counterpart, you unbox it:.