Child Adolescent Mental Health CNS Review (Child Adolescent Nurse Review Book 1)

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Gartstein PhD Carie S. Rodgers PhD Meredith M. Recent issues. Tools Submit an Article Browse free sample issue Get content alerts. Subscribe to this journal. Email or Customer ID.

Youth - Mental Health First Aid

Forgot password? Old Password. New Password. Password Changed Successfully Your password has been changed. Returning user. Request Username Can't sign in? Although the authors did not explore this further, it might be hypothesised that while control over adolescent behaviour e. Living in a higher quality neighbourhood is also associated with better child and adolescent mental health outcomes.

That said, it is important to note that social support networks may not benefit all children equally. For example, in impoverished communities, better outcomes are reported for children whose primary caregiver reported knowing fewer of their neighbours. The authors hypothesise that mothers who are able to manage adversities in their impoverished neighbourhood, perhaps because they can access other assets, may need less social capital to support healthy development in their children Caughy et al. The evidence available to assess the role and impact of family structure on externalising behaviours was limited to two studies and only one of these found an association; living in a one-parent household was predictive of increased oppositional defiant disorder symptoms Aneshensel and Sucoff Moreover, the parent-adolescent relationship appears to be particularly important for those from a one-parent household Oman et al.

Given the nature of these behaviours, it is perhaps surprising to note that only one of the included studies explored the association between parental monitoring and externalising behaviours and failed to find one Smith and Barker Children and adolescents from families that were high in feelings of trust and justice Delsing et al.

In contrast, adolescents living in high risk neighbourhoods reported increased suppression of anger when extended family support was higher. The authors suggest this demonstrates that the family has an important role to play in moulding anger suppression in adolescents and, we surmise, that this may be context-specific Stevenson There was mixed evidence relating to the association between social support networks and externalising behaviours. In one study, preschool children living in areas with high levels of poverty were reported to be at increased risk of displaying externalising behaviours if their primary caregiver reported higher levels of social support from their neighbours.

In contrast, preschool children from more affluent areas were less likely to display externalising behaviours if their primary caregiver reported having social support from neighbours Caughy et al. For adolescents, increased quantity and quality of social networks was associated with increased lying and disobedient behaviours in one study Ciairano et al.

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However, a number of other studies reported that social support networks offered adolescents protection against some externalising behaviours e. In sum, in the context of externalising behaviours FSC offers the most consistent protective role for children and adolescents. In the context of CSC a number of studies reported risk relationships and in other studies social capital was protective for some externalising behaviours but not others. Consistent with internalising behaviours, caregivers from impoverished neighbourhoods who reported knowing few of their neighbours also reported better outcomes for their children.

As noted above, this may be because these caregivers have access to assets other than social capital that enable them to deal with the demands of their environment and support healthier development in their children Caughy et al. Thirteen of the included studies Dorsey and Forehand ; Dufur et al.

Nine of the studies were cross-sectional surveys and they reported on mixed sex samples across the various age groups. There was inconsistent evidence for the role of parental monitoring with one study reporting a negative impact of control for adolescents Maynard and Harding and another reporting monitoring to be positive for children and adolescents Parcel and Dufur In sum, positive relationships that exist within the family and those that extend out into the community are associated with better outcomes when internalising and externalising behaviours are assessed as a composite.

Children and adolescents also seem to benefit from the structural support that comes in the form of higher quality schools and neighbourhoods.

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The primary aim of this integrative systematic review was to identify, analyse and synthesise empirical evidence on the association between family and community social capital and mental health and behavioural problems in children and adolescents. In doing so we assessed evidence from 55 studies making this the largest and most comprehensive systematic review in this field.

In the case of FSC, parent—child relationships offered the most consistent protective role for children and adolescents, with the majority of the observed associations being in the positive direction. Parent—child relationships characterised by, for example, positive communication Birndorf et al. The protective role of the parent—child relationship is well documented in relation to other outcomes. Thus, is it important that evidence-based early interventions designed to foster positive parent—child relationships, such as the Triple P — Positive Parenting Program Sanders are made available and accessible to families.

Children and adolescents from families that are cohesive Ying and Han , high in justice i.

The role of the extended family has previously been highlighted as an important social capital resource in the adult literature; bonding forms of capital are generated and exploited in the intra-family relationships and families can bridge individual members to wider social resources. For example, in comparison to healthy adults, adults with psychiatric disorders perceive themselves as having less meaningful relationships with family members, their family connections are fewer in number i.

The evidence for parental monitoring was inconsistent, with almost equal numbers of the associations being reported as positive Parcel and Dufur ; Ying and Han and negative Glendinning and West ; Maynard and Harding ; Yugo and Davidson Half of the studies that examined family structure failed to find a significant relationship with mental health and problem behaviour outcomes.

However, the studies that did reported significant results suggested that youth who live in two-parent households have more positive outcomes. These findings echo those published elsewhere in the literature; for example, a number of studies have highlighted the protective role that family structure can have for young people in terms of sexual health Kerrigan et al. In the context of CSC, the weight of evidence points to children and adolescents benefiting from social support networks.

Children and adolescents report fewer mental health and behavioural problems when they have wider social support networks of peers Rotenberg et al. This reinforces a large body of literature that illustrates the importance of social networks across a wide range of life domains, including educational attainment Eggens et al. Providing safe and enriching opportunities for children and young people to extend and exploit their own social support networks should, therefore, be an important goal for policy makers and practitioners.

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Young people, especially younger children, also appear to accrue indirect benefit from their parents having wider and higher quality social support networks Beiser et al. Demonstrating that children and adolescents can achieve health benefits through their own social resources and through social resources accumulated by significant others e. For example, interventions that focus on enhancing support networks for parents of children with chronic health conditions have been shown to be effective in eliciting positive child and parent outcomes Chernoff et al.

The evidence in this review suggests that, rather than focusing in sub-populations of parents, increasing access to interventions that help parents develop their support networks may be beneficial for all families. There was little evidence to suggest that civic engagement was associated with mental health and behaviour problems.

On the other hand, attending a school with a higher quality environment e. It is important to note, however, that there was no evidence that personal importance of religion or religiosity was associated with the outcomes. Overall, we found little evidence of the elements of CSC being related to poorer outcomes; however, we did find evidence that both FSC and CSC can have a differential effect on some sub-groups of children and adolescents and a number of relationships require further exploration. In addition, neighbour-based parental support networks are associated with fewer behavioural problem outcomes in preschool children living in affluent neighbourhoods but increased behavioural problems in impoverished neighbourhoods Caughy et al.

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It is, therefore, important that future research seeks to uncover the mechanisms through which social capital may exert different influences on the mental health including behavioural problems of children and adolescents living in different contexts. The strengths and limitations of this review exist at two levels: in the review process itself and the individual studies.

In terms of the review process, while the extensive heterogeneity in the outcome measures prevented us from performing a meta-analysis, by adopting an integrative approach with a robust analytical process we were able to synthesis data from a large number of studies that employed a range of different research designs.


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Moreover, with the exception of one, the included studies were rated by the reviewers as being moderate to high quality which strengthens the conclusions that can be drawn from the synthesised results. We do, however, acknowledge that relevant literature may not have been identified. For example, journals are known to favour papers that report statistically significant results meaning that studies failing to identify significance may be under-represented. Our success in capturing studies was also dependent upon adequate indexing of papers within the databases; however, as outlined above, we did take measures to ensure that our search strategy was as robust as possible.

In terms of the individual studies, social capital is a multifaceted concept whose dimensions function in various directions Morrow ; Stone , the lack of an agreed definition and little uniformity in its measurement across the studies made synthesising the evidence challenging. It is important that future research defines and operationalises social capital in a more consistent and robust manner enabling a clearer understanding of its relationship to important outcomes and assisting comparisons across studies. Other reviews exploring social capital and mental health have included children and adolescents but considered them alongside adults Almedom ; De Silva et al.

We sought to overcome this criticism of previous work by adopting a definition of social capital that was theoretically pluralistic but informed by previous research to ensure that it encapsulated aspects of social capital relevant to young people. For example, given that school is integral to the lives of children and adolescents and their families, and in keeping with the work of Coleman and Ferguson , we included this in our definition of community social capital.


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  • That said, while there was limited availability of positively framed evidence, we sought to ensure that, where possible, the conclusions we drew were framed within an assets based approach. Despite the limitations that we highlight, the large body of evidence in this review means that we have been able to demonstrate conclusively that FSC and CSC are both associated with mental health and behavioural problems in children and adolescents; however the cross sectional nature of many of the studies prevented us from drawing firm conclusions about the direction of these associations.

    This review also highlights a lack of qualitative evidence. Future qualitative research is essential if we are to develop a theoretical framework that articulates the mechanisms through which social capital works to effect health and wellbeing, the various circumstances in which this occurs and how family and community social capital interact and mediate outcomes.

    To the best of our knowledge, this is the first review to focus exclusively on the relationships that exist between family and community social capital and mental health and behavioural problems in children and adolescents. Our comprehensive examination of the available evidence suggests that there are important ways in which social capital, generated and mobilised at the family and community level, can influence the mental health and problem behaviours of young people.